Tuesday, 21 June 2016

CHAPTER I

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study
English is a widely spoken language, so it becomes a global language. As an international language, English has become a tool for International communication in every single life business. Many people learn English because they think it will be useful in some way for international communication and travel. (Harmer, 2007:11)
In English study, four language skills should be mastered are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In facts, speaking is one of the most important things in life, thus any expression of thought that comes from mind can be conveyed by speaking. Harmer (2001) argues that the ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of language features, but also the ability to process information and language 'on the spot'. For instance in daily lives most of people speak more than write. On the other hands, speaking a foreign language usually seems much harder than learning to write and read it.
Wardhaugh (1986) says that when two or more people communicate with other in speech, we can call the system of communication that they employ a code. Harmer (2007) argues that the meaning of language depends on where it occurs. Such a great importance brings with it huge challenge to the teacher of the language. This challenge is not only the matter of methodology and instructional strategy and also a matter between the student’s interest and motivation to learn the language.

Dornyei (2001) says that when the target of the learning process is the mastery of a second language, it becomes even more complex. Dornyei (2002) adds that the learner’s enthusiasm, commitment and persistence are the key determinant of success or failure.

First trouble is that we are lack of motivation underlying rare practices affecting on the speaking ability. Motivation in second language learning is a complex phenomenon which can be defined in terms of two factors: learner’s communicative needs and their attitudes toward the second language community. If learners need to speak the second language in with range of social situations or to fulfill professional ambitions, they will perceive the communicative value of the second language and will therefore be motivated to acquire proficiency in it. It means that when learning language the role of motivation is very important since the students can’t learn effectively with less motivation. This research will focus on the motivation to speak English, because speaking English considered has so many troubles to do, compare with other three English skills. In accustom to speak English, people generally said that they feel shy to utter words, they have fears to be wrong, they don’t want to take offense if people mock them because of their wrongness; it badly affect their motivation to speak.

Walker and symons (1997) cited in Dornyei (2001) say that human motivation is at its highest when people are competent, have sufficient, set worthwhile goals, get feedback and are affirmed by others. Dörnyei (2001) says there are two key factors: first, individual expectations of success; and secondly the value individuals put on success (or their negative fear of failure). If individuals have high positive feelings on both factors, they will have a high degree of positive motivation. If one of these factors is missing, they will be less motivated. Dörnyei (2001) adds that there are various factors that affect expectancy of success. These include past experiences (attribution theory), judging individual abilities and competence (self-efficacy theory) and maintaining self-esteem (selfworth theory).

Panits (1997) argues that in the collaborative model groups would assume almost total responsibility for answering the question. The students determine if they had enough information to answer the question. If not they identify other sources, such as journals, books, videos, the internet, to name a few. The work of obtaining the extra source material would be distributed among the group members by the group members. The group would decide how many reasons they could identify. But not all of our institutions apply it in their educational process, recently there have been a lot of school who teach the students on how collaborate each other and try to solve a problem together.